Emerging-Aguilo-18-1

Emerging Voices

David Beagley, editor


Appearing Otherwise: Changing Alice into the Woman of Wonderland.

Emily Aguilo-Perez


Emily R. Aguilo-Perez is currently a doctoral candidate (ABD) at The Pennsylvania State University. She specializes in Children's Literature with a minor in Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, and teaches a course on children's literature directed at pre-service teachers. Her research interests include girlhood studies, children's  literature, ESL, and cultural studies. Her past work examines various adaptations of the Alice books into film, while her current research engages in memory-work with adult women to explore the social and cultural implications of Barbie in Puerto Rican girlhoods.


In Chapter IX of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (hereafter abbreviated as AAW) Alice receives yet another piece of advice, this time from The Duchess, who tells her “be what you would seem to be” to others (Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland 93). Being what others want you to be does not sound like the best advice a little girl can receive, yet the truth is that The Duchess is not so far from Alice’s reality. Looking at numerous previous adaptations of Carroll’s books it becomes evident that the character Alice has been changed several times and transformed into different persons, with each one of them reflecting what the person who envisioned her thinks she is. She is not Alice, the character Carroll created in the books, anymore in the different adaptations that have emerged. In more recent films, the character has been depicted as an adult who returns to Wonderland and is bestowed the task of saving Wonderland from evil. Two recent films, Alice (2009)directed by Nick Willingand Alice in Wonderland (2010) directed by Tim Burton, are set in Wonderland, follow some parts of the stories, and include many elements from the original books, but differ from all the previous adaptations because Alice – the Alice from Wonderland – has grown up and has changed in many different aspects when compared to the little girl whom Lewis Carroll crafted.

Nick Willing’s second attempt at adapting the books shows us 20-year old Alice Hamilton (hereafter referred to as Willing’s Alice), a karate instructor who goes to Wonderland looking for her boyfriend, who mysteriously disappeared (Willing, Alice 2009). In the 2010 film directed by Tim Burton Alice in Wonderland her name is Alice Kingsleigh (hereafter referred to as Burton’s Alice), and she returns to Wonderland some years later to escape the stifling limits of marriage and adult society. In other words, she is what she seems to be to others, just as The Duchess predicted. This paper focuses on Burton’s and Willing’s film adaptations and argues that Alice is the result of the image created by audiences, filmmakers, interpreters of Carroll’s work, biographers, and anyone who has constructed their own version of the character and her background story. As a result, Alice is not who she was anymore, but popular culture’s idea of who she is.

Alice’s First Changes

The image that popular culture has created of Alice, Lewis Carroll, and everything that surrounds them has opened the doors to a plethora of interpretations and adaptations. The adaptations that were based on the stories only featured an adult actress playing Alice, but she was supposed to be the seven-year-old girl, or at least a little girl from the original stories – since in Disney’s animated feature she was about eleven years old. Alice only grew up in age when the adaptation used the character in a new and different story, or when the character was the real girl, Alice Liddell. These adaptations, however, were not the story about Alice’s adventures in Wonderland or in Looking-Glass world. The only exception which could be identified as such is Alice’s erotic adventures from 1976, which somewhat followed the original stories, but even then, it was not the Alice from the story. In the novels Still She Haunts Me (2002) and Alice I Have Been (2010) the character is a combination of the books’ character Alice and Alice Liddell, the real girl who was Carroll’s friend. The character Alice has also been turned into a scared little girl, for example in Disney’s animated feature Alice in Wonderland (1951), where she is eager to escape the madness of the new world upon which she has stumbled. Alice went from innocent to erotic in numerous adaptations, including the pornographic film Alice in Wonderland: An X-Rated Musical Fantasy (1976) and in the erotic graphic novel Lost Girls (2006). In the latter her name is Alice Fairchild, a woman in her 60s who reminisces about the many sexual adventures she had as young woman.

What is evident in some of the adaptations that preceded the 2009 and 2010 films is that Alice’s adultness does not come from the same place as it comes in the books. Her adultness is depicted through the sexualization of Alice and by placing Alice in situations that seem uncomfortable to audiences, especially audiences who are familiar with pedophilia. For instance, when discussing Harry Harris’(1985) and Jonathan Miller’s (1966) Alice in Wonderland films Will Brooker points to the influence pedophilia and audience’s knowledge of it have on the reading of Alice. In a scene where Alice, in this case a nine-year-old, is accompanied by the Cheshire Cat, the Hatter and the Hare, all grown men dressed in costumes Brooker explains the intimacy between the characters can be discomforting for audiences. As he describes, Alice is with the grown men and has allowed the leader “to get quite close to her emotionally and physically,” and he clarifies that “such a reading of the scene would only be likely in a cultural context highly attuned to the risk of pedophilia and child abuse – that sensitivity heightened by the rumours around Carroll” (Brooker 223). Adding to this notion is the obvious fact that Alice has been depicted more overtly sexual in previous films, which can only propel Alice’s growth even more. Some of these previous stories “are not about little girls, but they are definitely about sex” (Israel 270), as is the highly sexual graphic novel Lost Girls by Alan Moore. The 2009 and 2010 films, then, have reconceptualized Alice’s adultness into something that is more appropriate. As a result, in these film adaptations Alice has developed into an adult woman.

Alice has found herself in literary works and film adaptations that narrate her new adventures or narrate her old adventures in a completely different way. Some of these new adventures place Alice in situations, places, and among people who she would consider foreign. Furthermore, Alice is very different, almost foreign as well. In her thorough exploration of Alice adaptations, Kali Israel found “a constellation of Alices, most of whom have been moved from the Victorian era and only some of whom are ‘little girls’” (255). Alice’s age is perhaps the most notable change in the character throughout many adaptations of Carroll’s books. In Carroll’s stories about Alice the question of Alice’s age is presented in various occasions, sometimes explicitly and other times as an undertone. In Through the Looking-Glass, for instance, Alice discusses her age with Humpty Dumpty, who advises her to stop growing up:

“So here’s a question for you. How old did you say you were?”
Alice made a short calculation, and said “Seven years and six months.” […]
“Seven years and six months!” Humpty Dumpty repeated thoughtfully. “An uncomfortable sort of age. Now if you’d asked my advice, I’d have said “Leave off at seven’ – but it’s too late now.” (Carroll, Looking-Glass 79

Although growing up is a theme that is featured in the stories, modern societies have assigned a more important role to it than its role in the stories. It has been discussed that Carroll’s second book reflects the drift between him and Alice Liddell when she started growing up. Many have interpreted this as Carroll’s refusal to accept the fact that Alice Liddell was growing up and was not as fond to listening to his stories and playing games as she used to be. As Jan Susina explains, “Some critics, directors of films and plays, and readers seem to think that Carroll wanted to fix Alice forever as a young girl”(6-7). This is evident, for example, in Katie Roiphe’s novel Still She Haunts Me, where she combines reality with fiction, and depicts Carroll as a man who does not want Alice to grow up: “Even the rituals surrounding birthdays were alarming and unfestive, he thought, like the extinguishing of flame. Afterward he had taken her aside and told her he would give her an ‘un-birthday’ present on a different day so as not to encourage her to get any older” (33).

However, this idea does not parallel with the stories, for in the ending of Alice’s Adventure’s in Wonderland Alice has matured. Carroll ends the story by describing how Alice’s sister imagined Alice’s future to be like:

Lastly, she pictured to herself how this same little sister of hers would, in the after-time, be herself a grown woman; and how she would keep, through all her riper years, the simple and loving heart of her childhood: and how she would gather about her other little children, and make THEIR eyes bright and eager with many a strange tale, perhaps even with the dream of Wonderland of long ago: and how she would feel with all their simple sorrows, and find a pleasure in all their simple joys, remembering her own child-life, and the happy summer days. (Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland 130)

Yet, whether or not Carroll was trying to keep Alice a little girl, the newer adaptations seem to follow the idea that Alice did in fact grow up, and that she is not a little girl anymore.

Alice’s New Wonderlands

In Tim Burton’s film, Alice has grown up to be nineteen years old, and she remains the Alice who had gone to Wonderland before, thirteen years earlier as the film explains. In Nick Willing’s 2009 version Alice is twenty years old, but she is not the girl who had previously gone to Wonderland since this adventure takes place one hundred and fifty years afterwards.

In the both film adaptations this change in Alice’s age is important because it serves as a catalyst to other major changes in the character and her behavior towards her surroundings. Alice is no longer the seven-year-old girl from the books; she has now grown into a woman, and, more importantly, her change seems to develop parallel and according to the perspectives of popular culture. Of course, from a cultural standpoint “the child” has changed extensively since one hundred and fifty years ago, when the first Alice book was conceived, and this has given way to the changes in Alice the character. James Kincaid explains the shift from the Victorian era to the twentieth century in terms of views about childhood, informing that throughout the 19th century, the image of the child was that of a symbol of purity, asexuality, and most of all innocence. There was nothing erotic about the child; yet Kincaid adds that at the same time, the child could be a representation of a suppressed desire. The Victorians, Kincaid argues, viewed children in ways that seem complex and prove difficult for popular culture to understand. Brooker points to this misunderstanding when talking about contemporary perceptions towards Carroll:

Social sins have traded places in the last one hundred years: the child-love that served as a badge of respectability in the mid to late 1800s is now Carroll’s curse, providing his detractors with evidence to twist into an “unnatural obsession with little girls”. (57

These perceptions influence the outcome of the adaptations, for the audience is of utmost importance in the process.

In adapting Carroll’s books either to other types of books or a different medium, authors, illustrators, animators and directors “have re-imagined Wonderland for themselves, and their differing audiences” (Ciezarek 192). Similarly, when adapting known books into films, directors carefully consider what audiences know about the books, what they expect, and what their reaction to the film will be. In the majority of cases audiences want film adaptations to be fairly faithful to the original source and can become disappointed when this does not happen. In Linda Hutcheon’s words, “the more rabid the fans, the more disappointed they can potentially be” (123). As a result, usually (albeit not always) directors attempt to remain faithful to the source, while making the necessary changes to the story. This is not case for these two newer Alice film adaptations; the directors have strayed away from the original source, only leaving some elements of the books, but turning the stories into new ones. However, the audience has influenced these adaptations in terms of the perceptions. The two new films, it could be said, reflect popular culture’s perceptions of Alice and their discomfort with the sexualization of a little girl. The protagonist cannot remain a little girl if she carries such an erotic past, and if popular culture perceives her as an erotic being.

One way in which sexuality was displaced from the child was with the emergence of the concept of the adolescent or puberty. According to Kincaid, “The creation of [the concept of] puberty seems to have solved a good many problems [because] it provided a means for preserving childhood innocence” (124) while also allowing the child to grow. It was a new way of looking at the child where “one simply posited that puberty marked the moment of metamorphosis, where the child was recast as an adult” (Kincaid 124). With this change, then, the child was able to explore and carry the sexuality that was considered not appropriate for the child, but which was more acceptable if the child had metamorphosed. This is potentially a strong indicator of precisely what Alice has experienced in the various adaptations, but more specifically in Burton’s and Willing’s adaptations. However, she has already surpassed the phase of puberty and has already entered into adulthood. With this passage, there are many different events, actions, and experiences that Alice can now go through which she could not have gone through before. She has metamorphosed into the woman of Wonderland, who has left behind the childish games and who has to endure new adventures.

The adaptations presented and discussed by Brooker, as well as some of those explored by Israel, presented an Alice who was growing up. As noted by Brooker, Willing’s 1999 version of Alice parallels with Miller’s version as they portray “a child dealing with adult conventions” (218), but in Willing’s case specifically, the director explains Alice’s changes based on what contemporary audiences expect:

The main thing I insisted on is that Alice is asked to sing a song and is scared. The reason I did that is I felt the book is a collection of anecdotes, sketches written at different times and then cobbled together in a book. It is not written as a story with a beginning, middle and end. And our modern movie sensibility has to have an emotional pull for us to stay with a character. […] Singing the song becomes a metaphor for growing up. (Willing qtd. in Brooker 218)

Willing’s 1999 adaptation, in addition to others previously presented, depicts Alice dealing with issues of growing up, and can be read as a story of reaching the stage of puberty. His perception of who Alice is and what her story is about is made clear through his emphasis on growing up, and which materialized in his 2009 adaptation for the SyFy network. As explained by Willing, the new Alice is very different from Carroll’s since “Obviously, she’s not a little girl […] She’s a woman with all the kind of female problems that come from falling in and out of love. So that’s one very different character” (qtd. in Topel par. 4).

The idea of falling in love and the fact that Alice is not a naïve child anymore are played in both films on several occasions. However, in the newer adaptations of Alice this process is already complete: Alice has grown up. Further than that, in Willing’s adaptation love plays an integral role to the development of the plot because Alice’s adventures in his version continue thanks to her interest in saving Jack, the man whom she refused to marry but with whom she was in love. Whenever Alice has the opportunity to save herself, she risks her life in an attempt to find Jack and bring him back to the real world. Nevertheless, throughout the film Willing’s Alice seems to be falling in love with someone else – the Hatter – and in the end he goes back to the real world and they end up together. Naturally, this aspect of the story and the character would not have been possible with a younger Alice, for it would not make sense to give a seven-year-old or even a ten-year-old a romantic interest.

Sexuality in the Adult Alice

Although for Willing’s Alice love played a more important role in her life than for Burton’s Alice, for both of them the fact that they were adults in these depictions allows them to be portrayed very differently from the original Alice. Alice has been sexualized many times, and this portrayal is not limited to literature or pornographic films. In popular culture Alice is portrayed as a sex symbol as is evident in many images using the character. The modern image of Alice is usually more mature and darker than the original; moreover, her clothing, which is supposed to be that of a little girl, is now targeted at adult women as costumes that involve a very short skirt, low cleavage, high leg tights, and high heels. The Alice in American McGee’s Alice, who is seventeen years old, sports a similar attire comprised of knee-high tights, boots, and the white pinafore over the blue dress. This Alice is still young but mature looking, creating a mixture of adultness and childhood that has transcended to the newer versions of Alice. This mixture of little girl and adult creates an image of Alice that is innocent yet heavily sexual, and which has been used in the newer films.

In Burton’s Alice in Wonderland Alice’s clothes are not as revealing as modern Halloween costumes, but they do hint at sexuality, showing a little of Alice’s skin and making her look sexy. In addition, during an interaction between Alice and the Knave, her sexuality is used, making it clear that this is not a little girl anymore – had she been a little girl, this interaction either would not have happened or it would have been very disturbing for the modern viewer. While Alice, who everyone in the Queen’s palace believes is named Um, walks down the palace’s hall, the Knave pushes her against a wall, stands very closely to her says, “I like you Um. I like largeness” (Burton Alice in Wonderland 2010). Despite the fact that Alice respond to the Knave’s approach by telling him to stay away from her, it is clear Alice is not only an adult, but she also exudes a subtle sexuality that is attractive to adult men.

In a similar manner Willing’s film adaptation takes a step towards the sexual Alice, providing little remarks that hint at the fact that she is an attractive young woman. For instance, when Alice and the Hatter meet she is soaking wet as a result of having fallen into a lake. As he offers her a coat, Alice asks him why he would help her, to which he responds, “Do I need a reason to help a pretty girl in a very wet dress?” (Willing Alice 2009). This remark is an obvious allusion to the fact that Alice is all grown up, attractive, and sexy, even more so because she is drenched and her dress showcases her figure.  This is a remark which the Hatter could not have done to Alice had she remained a little girl, for the concerns about pedophilia and childhood sexuality would have been raised by such an interaction.

There is a slight difference between Burton’s Alice and Willing’s Alice in terms of their physical appearance: while Willing’s Alice is an adult and also looks like an adult, Burton’s Alice (who is played by Mia Wasikowska) remains child-like-looking. The body built of Willing’s Alice is more developed and closer to that of a woman. This could be attributed to the actress’ age, as Caterina Scorsone was about twenty-seven years old when the film was produced and she played Alice. On the other hand, Burton’s Alice looks like a nineteen-year-old because the actress was also that age, and it kept Alice looking older yet with a touch of innocence. This becomes problematic because her sexuality was used in the film because she is an adult, but her innocent look reminds the audience of a younger girl. This aspect, however, is not the only problem when it comes to Alice’s age.

Losing Curiosity with Age

When Carroll’s seven-year-old Alice arrives to Wonderland and Looking-Glass, she is amazed by the different creatures and places she finds. She is guided by curiosity and remains curious throughout her journeys. Carroll’s Alice was assertive, curious, inquisitive, and adventures, and more importantly, she took the reins of her adventures. These characteristics, which are often associated to adults, have been greatly changed now that Alice has become one. In the article “Tim Burton is Wrong to Make Alice in Wonderland a Woman,” Stuart Walton identifies this significant change in the character:

So the impulse to make her look mature on film is understandable, but misguided. It matters that this wisdom comes from a child, because she thereby gives her young readers and viewers the first thrilled intimation that they, too, will one day cease to be treated as children. (Walton par. 4)

In the films Alice has lost some of that inquisitive nature Carroll’s Alice showed, and it was even more important that she showed it because she was a little girl. In Carroll’s stories little Alice takes control of her adventures instead of allowing Wonderland to lead them. As Walton suggests, the changes in Alice’s age have taken away the character’s original strength:

The quality in her that directors (and actors) have missed most frequently is her worldliness […] Alice is of course only six years old [she is actually seven and seven and a half in the books], but she doesn’t sound like any six-year-old of today. Under repeated personal attack […] she stands up unbowed, often deflecting the barbs by deconstructing them, but never crassly turning them back against their sources, as a real child might. (Walton par. 3)

In Burton’s film, for instance, Alice is told she needs a sword called the Vorpal Sword to kill a monster, and there is something special about the sword: “The Vorpal Sword knows what it wants, you just have to hold on to it” (Alice in Wonderland 2010). What this means, then, is that Alice would use the sword, but she would not be actively killing the beast because the sword would do all the work for her, it just needed Alice to hold it. Alice is portrayed as an entity that is at mercy of her surroundings, instead of being Alice the one who takes control of them.

Even more, most adaptations, including the new ones, have portrayed her curiosity as something negative, taking away part of the character’s independence and strength as a female. In the adaptations directed by Burton and Willing, Alice not only loses her curiosity at times, but her attitude towards Wonderland in general has become more negative now that she is an adult.

In Willing’s adaptation curiosity is also depicted negatively from the very beginning when Alice looks at the bottle with the potion but instead of being labeled “Drink Me” it says “Curiosity” on one side and “Killed the cat!” on the other. From this moment it is clear that being curious will only lead to problems. One would think that by making Alice an adult this aspect of her character would be showcased more positively because it could show that she is an independent woman ready to learn about the world. However, interestingly as an adult Alice’s curiosity did not grow with her and instead she is apprehensive about being in Wonderland, even scared of it. For instance, Burton’s Alice, when in the real world, is as insightful and curious as Carroll’s Alice. She wonders what it would feel like to fly, how women would look in trousers, and she observes everything around her. However, it is when she arrives to Wonderland (in this film called Underland) where her curious nature banishes. This is where the original Alice becomes a stronger female.

Carroll’s Alice entered Wonderland because she saw the White Rabbit and was curious as to why a rabbit could talk and wear a coat. She decided to follow him and find out where he is headed, which eventually leads her to Wonderland. On the contrary, both adult Alices enter the place that represents Wonderland for two different reasons: one wanted to return a ring to the man she loved and the other followed the rabbit only because she wanted to escape the reality of a marriage proposal. Their uncurious attitude is made obvious since their first step in Wonderland.

Throughout most of their journeys both Alices, although being adults, display an attitude of uncertainty, fear, and rejection of Wonderland. Their attitudes are further manifested in their desire to leave Wonderland and return back home. Brooker pointed this out when discussing Willing’s first Alice adaptation from 1999, in which Alice was still a little girl, but one who was incessantly trying to find her way back home: “Where Harris’ Alice wanted to go home and Carroll’s wanted, for the most part, to penetrate Wonderland more deeply, Willing’s is trying to escape” (Brooker 217). Both Burton’s Alice and Willing’s Alice from his 2009 film go through their journeys in Wonderland only because they know at the end they will be able to back home.
In Burton’s adaptation, Alice continues viewing her Wonderland as a dream, a figment of her imagination; as she says, “This has all come from my own mind” (Alice in Wonderland 2010), yet she is not able to control anything, especially the fact that she cannot escape it. For this reason, Alice completes all her tasks, knowing that in the end, she might return home. Furthermore, she has the power to choose where the potion will take her, and she chooses to leave Wonderland. In Willing’s adaptation Alice has the same attitude towards Wonderland; despite knowing that her boyfriend Jack might not be trustworthy, she trusts him because he promises to help her go back home.

It is interesting to see how different Alice has become, not only in her age but also in her general attitude towards Wonderland and everything it represents. The seven-year-old Alice from Carroll’s books only left Wonderland and Looking-Glass worlds because she was dreaming up those places. She did not willingly and knowingly leave them, and during her journeys, she barely missed being home. In these two new versions, re-imagined by Burton and by Willing, Alice has not simply grown-up, she has also grown distant to Wonderland. Her changes carry something deeper, something that reflects perhaps the culture in which the adaptations were created and the perceptions inherent in them.

Closing Remarks

The fact that Alice grew up brings along other changes in the character’s portrayal in these two film adaptations. Not only has the character matured into a woman whose sexuality and appearance can be depicted with more ease, but she has also turned into a stranger to Wonderland, scared of what she may find there and scared of getting close to people.

Alice has been transformed into someone so different from the seven-year-old from 1865, that she is almost unrecognizable. After so many changes to her story, questions about her character, insinuations about her creator, and of course her twelve changes in size and two visits to other worlds, it is no Wonder the original Alice is a confused little girl. If it was puzzling for Alice to come up with an answer to the Caterpillar’s inquiry “Who are you?” back when she was in Wonderland, it can be assumed it would be even more difficult if she were asked now, since she has been reinvented in so many ways.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Alice. Dir. Nick Willing. Perf. Caterina Scorsone, Matt Frewer, Harry Dean Stanton, Tim Curry, Kathy Bates. Lions Gate, 2010. DVD.

Alice in Wonderland: An X-Rated Musical Fantasy. Dir. Bud Townsend. Perf. Kristine DeBell, Bucky Searles, Gila Havana. General National Enterprises, 1976. Film.

Benjamin, Melanie. Alice I Have Been. New York: Delacorte Press, 2010. Kindle Book.

Brooker, Will. Alice’s Adventures: Lewis Carroll in Popular Culture. New York: Continuum, 2004. Print.

Burton,Tim, dir.  Alice in Wonderland. Writer Linda Woolvertone. Perf. Johnny Depp, Mia Wasikowska, Helena Bonham Carter, Anne Hathaway. Walt Disney Pictures, 2010. DVD.

Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.1865. In The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition. Ed. Martin Gardner. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

---. Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. 1872. In The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition. Ed. Martin Gardner. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

Ciezarek, Rebecca. “The New Worlds of Wonderland.” Journal of Language, Literature, and Culture 61.3 (2014): 192-198. Print.

Disney’s Alice in Wonderland. Dir. Clyde Geronimi, Wilfred Jackson, and Hamilton Luske. Perf. Kathryn Beaumont, Ed Wynn, Richard Haydn, Sterling Holloway. Walt Disney Pictures, 1951. Film.

Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Adaptation. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Israel, Kali. “Asking Alice: Victorian and Other Alices in Contemporary Culture.” Victorian Afterlife: Postmodern Culture Rewrites the Nineteenth Century. Eds. John Kucich and Dianne F. Sedoff. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. 252-87. Print.

Kincaid, James. Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture. New York: Routledge, 1994. Print.

Moore, Alan. Lost Girls.Marietta, GA: Top Shelf Productions, 2006. Print.

Roiphe, Katie. Still She Hunts Me. United Kingdom: Delta, 2002. Print.

Susina, Jan. The Place of Lewis Carroll in Children’s Literature. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

Topel, Fred. “How Syfy’s Alice Brings the Classic into the Modern World.” Blastr Imagined by SyFy. 5 August 2009. Web. 21 March 2011. http://blastr.com/2009/08/how-syfys-alice-brings-th.php

Walton, Stuart. “Tim Burton is Wrong to Make Alice in Wonderland a Woman.” Film Blog. The Guardian. 17 August 2009. Web. 11 Feb. 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2009/aug/17/tim-burton-alice-in-wonderland

 

Emily Aguilo-Perez


Volume 18, Issue 1, The Looking Glass, September 2015

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The Looking Glass: new perspectives on children's literature

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